Zimbabwe is a landlocked country in Africa, of 39 075 700 hectares, bordered by South Africa, Mozambique, Botswana and Zambia. Altitudes range from around 500 meters in the northern Zambezi Valley to 1500 meters in the high-veld and then slope down again to around 300 meters in the south-east Low-veld. Zimbabwe also has some of the world’s most ancient rock formations known generally as the Basement Complex. Large scale faulting in the distant past has been responsible for the creation of the Middle Zambezi Valley in the north and the Save Valley in the east.
Zimbabwe, officially Republic of Zimbabwe, formerly (1911–64) Southern Rhodesia, (1964–79) Rhodesia, or (1979–80) Zimbabwe Rhodesia, landlocked country of southern Africa. It shares a 125-mile (200-kilometre) border on the south with the Republic of South Africa and is bounded on the southwest and west by Botswana, on the north by Zambia, and on the northeast and east by Mozambique. The capital is Harare (formerly called Salisbury). Zimbabwe achieved majority rule and internationally recognized independence in April 1980 following a long period of colonial rule and a 15-year period of white-dominated minority rule, instituted after the minority regime’s so-called Unilateral Declaration of Independence (UDI) in 1965.